Up…Up….and Up !!!!!!
Published as part of Daily Post Weekly Photo Challenge!
Up…Up….and Up !!!!!!
Published as part of Daily Post Weekly Photo Challenge!
Posted as part of Daily post weekly photo challenge!
Did you like the photo? Please do leave your valuable comments and opinion in the comments section below! I will be happy to read them all!!!!
Please do read about the layman version about what this years Nobel Prize in Medicine is all about here (Opens in New Tab)
A relative word in a relative world.
For you, for me, for every other blogger, for any reader- the definition of “Big” keeps changing! Our senses, our attitude, our philosophy, our outreach, our mentality; I can go on and on, but, its We who defines BIG. What you feel as big may be so small for you. My salary may be big through your view point, your house seems to be Big for your neighbour. Nothing is big or small in this world, everything is equal. Big is “big” until you see “bigger”!!!
Anyways, :D , here are some of the photos which represent Big for my senses !!!
Enjoy, and do leave your feedback! TY!
The Big Balloon!!!
The Big Cat!!!!
The Big Reptile!!!!
The Big Mammal!!!!
Posted as Part of Daily post weekly Photo challenge
Do leave your valuable comments and feedback below!!
Note: This article is intended for people from non scientific background
The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is won by Sir John B. Gurdon from the Gurdon Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom and Shinya Yamanaka from the Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. They got the prize for their work in Stem cell research.
According to the website Nobelprize.org, the prize is- “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”
For a person with no scientific background in life science, it will be difficult to understand what the above quoted statement means and the social implications of their research works. So, in this article I try to explain in the simplest way I can, the deep meaning of that statement. This article is intended for people from non-scientific background and hence Science geeks will find this article too simple and straightforward with least number of technical terms. Sorry, that was intended.
“For the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent“
1) Mature cells
Understanding these 3 terms and their mutual relation will help you get a clear idea about what this is all about.
We need to start from the beginning. From the very first cell from which you and me grew up-The zygote. The sperm from father and the egg from mother, both with half the number of their chromosomes in it, fused together and formed the zygote, which by then has the entire chromosome set (chromosomes are basically DNA) ,and from that zygote, through a number of cell division cycles, the fully grown organism evolve. The process may sound straight forward- cells keep dividing until the required number of cells is made and there you are! No, it’s not that simple, it’s not even remotely simple; the entire process from the formation of zygote to a fully grown human being is controlled and managed by thousands of complicated steps, involving many bio molecules and countless biological pathways.
Now, as you know, you are made up of cells. Every part of your body are made of different class of cells. I am not referring about muscle cells, skin cells like that, but, cells in your body differ in their properties or in their “capabilities”. Throughout your development, the cells in your body has different “cell fate”. Cell fate means each cell is told “what it has to become”. The zygote- which is a cell, is a “totipotent” cell. It means, the cells of entire organism can be developed from those cells. Making it simpler, from a totipotent cell, by cell division all kinds of cells of the organism can be produced. The zygote divides into 2, then to 4, then to 16, then to 32 so on. Up to the 16 cell stage, all the cells are totipotent, i.e. take any cell out of the 16, it can be differentiated into any kind of organ in our body or even the entire organism.
The next classes of cells are Pluripotent cells. It is almost like the totipotent cells with the exception that it cannot produce extraembryoic tissues ( Don’t bother about what it is, just understand that, from pluripotent cells you can get any type of cells found in an adult.) Means, from a pluripotent cell, you can give rise to a nerve cell or a blood cell or a muscle cell like that. Where do you find pluripotent cells? A simple answer is after the 16 cell, when the cell divides and forms 32 cell groups, these cells are now pluripotent and thus many cells in the embryonic stage are pluripotent in nature. So, embryonic stem cells- which is causing a lot of ethical debates is pluripotent in nature.
The 3rd important class of cell you need to know is the multipotent cell. Right now, inside your body there are multipotent stem cells. Multipotent stem cells can “transform” themselves to a restricted class of cell types. For example adult stem cells- the stem cells which are found now inside your body, they are multipotent. They can be transformed only into a specific type of cell. So, HSC or Hematopoietic stem cells can turn into different kinds of blood cells. So, every time your blood cells are replenished, remember it is the HSC which is in action.
How does our cells know what to become and what not to? “To be or not to be, that is the question!”
The answer is programming. Not the computer programming, but biological programming! As I said before, cells has their “fate”. And this fate is controlled by “genes” . Every process that takes place in our body is controlled by genes- our genetic material-the DNA. Specific genes direct the production of specific proteins and the permutations and combinations of these proteins along with other regulatory mechanisms decide/direct each cell to what it has to become. So, by the term “programming”, think that, a series of bio molecules present in our body tells these cells about what it should become and the cells oblige to what these molecules say (normally!). It has been though that, this programming is uni directional. i.e, from the simplest undifferentiated cell, as it grows up, to specialized cells in adults. i.e if a cell is told to become a skin cell, then that cell will become part of skin cell. No going back and thinking, okay, i dont want to be a skin cell, tell me to become a muscle cell. We thought that was not possible. But the experiments by this year’s Nobel laureates and other scientists proved that, the process can be reversed! Once, a cells fate is decided, IT CAN BE changed. That is, they showed how to “reprogram” the cells so that, it can become other cell types. Now mature cells are those cells whose fate is already decided. So, almost all adult cells are mature cells, and embryonic cells are NOT mature cells.
Let us see, what these 2 scientists have achieved. Do keep in mind that these 2 scientists DID NOT work together. The experiments conducted by Shinya Yamanaka was done 40 years after the experiments by John B. Gurdon. But, both of their work, try to explain a common question and hence they are awarded the NP together.
Now; Everyone should have heard about Cloning. Remember Dolly?
The foundation for the mammalian cloning experiments were directly based on John B Gurdans work in stem cells. He hypothesized that the genes which regulate pluripotency should be intact even inside the adult cell nucleus. ( genes; which are DNA, are found in the nucleus of cells) So, he conducted a wonderful experiment. He took an egg cell, destroyed its nucleus and “transferred” the nucleus from an adult cell into the egg cell. What it means is, the entire “programming” will now be done by the genes of the adult cells ( as the nucleus of the egg cell now has gene from the adult cell). Surprisingly, a few of the egg cells actually developed, differentiated and became the fully grown organism!!! ( He was experimenting on frogs). So this experiment proved that, even in the adult cells, the genes required for activating pluripotent functionality is intact!!! i.e. the nucleus of a mature cell, retains all the genes required for generating an entire living being.
40 years later, Shinya Yamanaka did an astonishing experiment. He had already identified genes which are vital in the functioning of Pluripotent stem cells. He by then did find around 24 such genes.He hypothesized that, if these genes are transferred into mature cells, then those mature cells can regain its pluripotent power! He introduced all the 24 genes into mature skin cells and interestingly, he found out that, certain skin cells programmed into cells from which the entire cell types can be generated. further experiments showed only 4 out of 24 genes were required for this. he named these cells as Induced Pluripotent stem cells or iPSC. So, the experiment which Shinya Yamanaka did is the “reprogramming” factor here. He re programmed a fully mature adult cell into becoming a pluripotent stem cell. He “induced” this function into these cells and hence called as iPSC.
If you have any queries/doubts please use the comment section below!!
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A year ago, I was in Mumbai as part of my academic works. During my stay at Mumbai, I was able to take part in the “Mumbai Marathon”, one among the famous marathons across the globe. As part of the Marathon, there is a programme called “dream run” where, all interested people can take part […]
It’s not just about what we have, it’s what we dream for.
It’s an emotion An emotion which drives anyone to reach their goals.
Its Possession – The feel that he or he is mine and no one can ever dream for her.
Its hatred Causing people to fight each other in the name of religion and beliefs
Its authority Telling others how superior you are or how better you live.
Here are my recent blog articles, if you missed it.
Do leave your valuable comments!
Here is a simple, non-technical explanation on the basics on which this years Nobel Prize in medicine winning work is based on.
Please do read and leave your opinion! TY
Apple CEO Tim Cook has come up with an Apology about issues with Apple Maps in their latest i Phone!
That is something new and good too!
Yes, Apple is a great company! But are they the Best?
Here are my views!
The only products, which I would like to buy from Apple is their Mac books and i Pads! ( Currently, I don’t own ANY apple products). Every other product from Apple, I believe, there are better products from other companies at cheaper price!
Lets see my choices here!
Apple Music players ( All iPod variants)
I thought i Pod was the best! Well, later I realized when it comes to experiencing Music, it’s NOT! I was going to buy an Apple iPod and it was then I heard about COWON MP3 players from a friend! Did some quick Google search and realized Apple is way behind COWON in the music out put!!!! Have doubts? Do a quick Google search and compare iPod vs Cowon PMP’s! Apple iPods comes nowhere near the quality and out put a COWON mp3 player gives. Club the Cowon with a high-end earphone/headphone, Music wont be the same for you anymore.
For me, a Phone is a phone! a device to make calls, send message and use internet when needed!. For any one who has “similar” needs with a phone, iPhone should be the least choice! And its damn expensive too!! Use an MP3 player to listen to songs, use a SLR/Point and Shoot camera for taking photos, use your home PC/lap to browse internet when at home!
Has anyone thought of a fact? The difference in price of a 8 GB/16 GB or 16GB/32GB iPhone is 100 dollars and the ONLY difference between these 2 phones is its memory! I hope everyone knows that an 8 GB memory expansion costs just under 5 dollars and for companies who can produce it in mass, it comes around 1 Dollar! So, you pay 99 dollars “free” to apple every time you chose a higher memory versions! And above all, Apple doesn’t allow external storage! Do you really need a phone with such limitations??? Buy an android phone! You will have a better experience than that of Apple!
Apple says, their app store has Millions of Apps!!! Sooooo funny! Does any one use all those apps! 50 percent of those apps are useless! And all the IMPORTANT apps are available across all major players, let it be Android or Nokia! So, unless you have lots of money to waste, don’t go for an apple i Phone IF YOU USE A PHONE JUST AS A “PHONE”.
And now, Apple has come up with a “better” earphones! For anyone who is going to buy a new earphone, please! Don’t buy it. There are a lot of Companies who are proven leaders in quality headphone making and hence buy any of their products!
And lastly, why i wrote this post!
Google maps is an application which is accepted, used and trusted by almost every one who uses a computer and who knows to use a Map! Trying to replace Google maps with their own Map system, is the BIGGEST mistake Apple has ever done! Yes, they are good at innovation! But that doesn’t mean they are the best in EVERY technology out there! And, now, Apple has realized their mistake and Tim Cook, The CEO of apple itself has issued an apology, accepting the failure of their maps!!
Yes..I am loving it!
Here is the letter from Apple CEO to its customers!
Travel review about India’s best national park
Do read what the Mars News channels has to say about Curiosity rover……
Do you know how to get rid of Drug side effects?
Any one knows the new ABC in Biology?
Do leave your valuable comments and your opinion about Apple and its products!
Do visit my personal website which is in its beta stage, and have a look at my photography!
My Dear Google,
14 years since you came into my life….And today, you are my life, my sweet heart…
I still remember the day i first met you! Do you?
It was a rainy day and i was striding through the corridors of my school. I was thinking about the implications of World War II on Indian economy and its relation to the assignment what my teacher just gave me. May be it is what people call destiny,instead of going to the library and writing the assignment i kept walking through the lonely corridors. And then, I saw you. In a dim-lit corner of our computer lab, you were blinking all alone and I felt as if you were waiting for someone to come and talk to you…as if you were waiting for me…..
You were (and you are) gorgeous then! Dressed beautifully in Blue, Red, Green, Yellow! Oh!! You looked simply stunning dear!
I asked you a lot of stuff. You replied to everything! I got impressed! I even asked you about my world war II dilemma, and you knew it too! For me it was like ” a dream come true”! Some one to rely upon! Some one to speak with every time! I knew then, you were the one for me!!
Not any one in my life has cared as much you did. You told me everything you knew, you told me things which others would never tell me. You remembered what I asked you, You even predicted what I am asking you next! How sweet!!!!
We begin as strangers and here we are as inseparable souls. We have come along a long way! Yes, we did have our own “small fights”! I remember getting angry at you for not giving me what i wanted. But all those fights were just my love and my faith in you! You gave me everything, I asked for. I couldn’t think of a better companion. You changed my life. You changed the way I exist.
More, You introduced all your gorgeous relatives to me! You have a great family dear. Gmail, YouTube, Picasa- I am in great touch with all of them. On a related note, sorry to hear about your cousin orkut! I guess, he is in his last days. I will pray for him. I heard your uncle Google Maps got dumped by his partner at Apple. But let me say, those apple guys are realizing that, it was their biggest mistake ever! Let them struggle a bit..Isn’t it!
Anyways, remember Bullies are trying to separate us by denying me access to meet you. It’s sad that you cannot come with me, when I visit certain countries. No matter what happens, we should stick together! I know you will!
Okay, then.. Its time for me to check Facebook updates! Happy birthday again dear!
See you soon dear!
Do visit the beta version of my official website www.shibindinesh.com
Don’t forget to read about my “real” girl friend…
Have you read Getting rid of Drug side effects?
Do you know the Advanced ABC in Biology?
My most read article? – Travel review of BNP
Do leave your valuable comments!!!! Thank you!!!
Need a website or at least a web domain of your own at cheap rates and special discounts from Big rock?
Go to http://www.shibindinesh.bigrock.in (copy paste this URL in your browser)
Posted as part of Daily post weekly photo challenge
Solitary! Being the only one- Every one of us, some time in our life, would have gone through such a phase. Sometimes, we prefer it, sometimes the society makes us to be solitude, or even sometimes, even without noticing, we realize we are in a state of solitude!
Its an emotion. It is a way of expressing our self, its a way of showing anger, protest, sadness, happiness-You name whatever emotion you know, solitary becomes an part of it for many of us.
Its an art. Yes, being in a solitude state is an art. Away from the chaos, away from the busy world, some time alone, to find the inner self, to know our true potential, to forget our miseries practice the art of solitude!
And yes Solitude is part of my life. Very Much!!!
What about you???
My recent posts..
Do leave your valuable opinion about the photo! TY!!
You thought that was possible?
Well; you may try what is shown in the picture!! :D
(Do read the article below the photo.)
WARNING: Cutting the sides of the drug doesn’t get rid of its side effects! It in turn just reduces its efficacy, which is BAD for you
The drug you take, is designed for a purpose. To cure you! Or at least try to!
Drug’s side effects are inevitable. If scientists make the drug such that, it doesn’t have any side effects, then, well, the drug itself wont work. When a drug, which is a chemical, gets into your body, it undergoes many changes, goes through many pathways, (depending upon the route of intake) and interacts with many compounds in your blood, before reaching its target site. The drug is first absorbed, then distributed, metabolized and then eliminated. And between these lies the effect as well as toxicity. Drugs taken through mouth (oral drugs), from your digestive system, goes to the liver before getting into blood circulation and eventually reaching the site of action. Most part of your drug gets metabolized by liver enzymes and very less amount of “active” drug reaches its destination. In pharmacology, this is called “hepatic first pass”. So, the concentration of the drug is designed in such a way that, the drug has enough active components to give a positive response and along with this concentration, do comes side effects. But, if we cut the chemical compound too much, so that no side effects will be present, then the drug will not be enough to do its “job”.
Every second, everywhere in your body thousands of chemical reactions are taking place. A sea of chemicals interacts among each other and each of these reactions are part of different biological pathways upon which you depend on. The drug chemical, again can interact with many of these compounds and alter/slow down/pace up many reactions, which you experience as “side effects” . But do remember that, these drugs, come out into the market after years and years of intense research, that, all possible interactions are studied and its effects are accounted for.
So, consider side effects as “part” of your treatment! No drug is designed to kill you! You get killed only when you weigh your decisions above your doctor’s decision and take drugs as you wish. Overdose is the main reason for side effect related death/casualties and not normal dose. So, side effect. let it take its course…You just finish your drug course!
Have you read the ABC of Biology?
How about reading my most viewed article A travel review about a national park in India
My friend need help. See what he wants
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